Low back pain is an exceedingly common complaint, with a lifetime prevalence ranging
from 11-84% (Walker, 2000). Chronic low back pain may be seen in as many as 75% of
patients 6-12 months after an initial episode (Wahlgren, 1997). The economic impact of low
back pain is also substantial. It is the fifth most common reason for all physician visits in the
U.S. (Deyo, 2002; Hart, 1995), and is responsible for direct medical costs that approach $30
billion annually (Luo, 2003). In addition, low back pain is a major cause of lost productivity;
it is estimated that up to 2% of the U.S. work force is compensated for back pain or injury
each year (Taylor, 1985).

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Interventions of interest:

  • Automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy
  • Coblation nucleoplasty
  • Epidural steroid injections
  • Intradiscal electrothermal therapy
  • Interdisciplinary rehabilitation programs that combine physical therapy, exercise, workplace interventions, and cognitive retraining
  • Interspinous spacer systems
  • Laminectomy
  • Radiofrequency denervation
  • Spinal fusion
  • Surgical lumbar discectomy

Final Documents

Below you will find the final documents from the assessment review process: