Alternative approaches to the current rebate system are being considered by policymakers and stakeholders in the private insurance market. This paper presents an analysis of three alternative options to the current rebate model: retaining retroactive rebates but requiring 100% pass-through of rebates and fees to plan sponsors; retaining retroactive rebates but requiring that patients share in rebates at the point of sale; and eliminating retroactive rebates and replacing the current structure with upfront discounts. Each alternative approach presents a balance of potential advantages and disadvantages. Policymakers should not assume that switching to an alternative rebate model will deliver unalloyed benefits for patients and the health system.