Program Type: ICER

Unsupported Price Increases Occurring in 2023

Dec 2024 | Policy Paper

This initiative will identify the 10 net price increases occurring in 2023 that had the largest impact on national drug spending and determine whether new clinical evidence existed that could support those price increases. For questions or additional information, please contact

ICER-PHTI Assessment Framework for Digital Health Technologies

Sep 2023 | Policy Paper

ICER and the Peterson Health Technology Institute (PHTI) collaborated on an assessment framework for digital health technologies (DHTs), which includes the conceptual model and associated methods that will guide assessments of DHTs within broader evaluative reports produced by the PHTI. Click here for the full framework. Date of publication: September 2023 For more information, please […]

Special Assessment to Inform CMS Drug Price Negotiation: Eliquis and Xarelto

Oct 2023 | Policy Paper

ICER is developing a special report evaluating the evidence on apixaban (Eliquis®, Bristol Myers Squibb) and rivaroxaban (Xarelto®, Bayer) for the treatment of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). ICER plans to release this report in September 2023 and submit it to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) as part of the public comment process […]

Methods Update: Value Assessment Framework

Sep 2023 | Policy Paper

The ICER value framework describes the conceptual framework and set of associated methods that guide the development of ICER evidence reports. ICER typically updates the value assessment framework once every three years. The purpose of the value framework is to form the backbone of rigorous, transparent evidence reports that, as a basis for broader stakeholder and […]

White Bagging, Brown Bagging, and Site of Service Policies

Apr 2023 | Policy Paper

The White Paper examines the efforts of payers to manage drug markups by implementing white bagging and brown bagging policies to shift the drug purchasing channel from providers to specialty pharmacies, as well as site of service policies requiring patients to receive treatment at lower-cost sites of care.  The Paper examines the existing evidence and […]

Unsupported Price Increases Occurring in 2022

Dec 2023 | Policy Paper

Of 10 high-expenditure drugs that had substantial 2022 net price increases, eight were not supported by new clinical evidence; these increases accounted for $1.27 billion in additional costs over one year. Separately, one of three Medicare Part B drugs with high list price increases in 2021 lacked adequate supporting new evidence, directly raising annual out-of-pocket expenses […]

Applying the Results of Comparative Effectiveness Research to Control Drug Costs: Policy Options for California

Mar 2023 | Policy Paper

This paper illustrates how comparative effectiveness research can be used by policymakers and health insurers in California to address rising drug costs by aligning spending with the degree of benefit a treatment provides.  ICER received a grant from the California Health Care Foundation (CHCF) to develop the White Paper. Date of publication: March 2023 For […]